The six +1 steps of the Compram method (DeTombe)


step 4

anticipation of the societal reactions

4 The selected interventions are discussed with the public before implementation in step four of the Compram method.

The fourth step is to try to anticipate the societal reactions which the interventions may provoke, in order to  avoid opposition.

 In step four of the process the planned interventions are analyzed with regard to the possible societal reactions. Here the knowledge experts, together with representatives of the actors try to anticipate possible opposition. This can be done by discussing the options with several experts, and by interviewing different groups, including various action groups. One can determine what the possible reactions might be by interviewing actors who are probably against the project or against some of the alternatives of the project. Here gaming can be used. Using a game to provide a ‘new reality’ the actors can show their reactions towards certain alternatives (Termeer, 1993). This can be complemented by a careful analysis of former projects carried out by the problem-owner to see where the opposition came from. Making an analysis of similar projects can also be helpful.

Different kinds of interventions


The concept of intervention in the problem handling process is often used to indicate an action of the problem-owner in the problem situation, however there are different kinds of interventions in a problem handling process.

A distinction can be made between interventions in the problem handling process by the problem-owner and his/her team, the included actors, and interventions of other actors not primarily included in the problem handling process or invited to participate later in the problem handling process, the excluded actors.

The concept of intervention is used mostly to describe a deliberate action planned by the problem-owner or by the problem handling team to change the outcome of the problem towards the desired goal of the problem-owner. To make a clear distinction between interventions towards or against the desired goal of the problem-owner interventions towards the desired goal are called supportive interventions. These can be interventions made by the included actors or the excluded actors.

Interventions against the desired goal of the problem-owner are called opposition. This can be interventions made by the included actors or excluded actors.


The method Compram prescribes in a framework model of six +1 steps how to handle these kinds of problems. This is the Basic Approach of the method Compram (see for a more detailed description of the Compram approach DeTombe, 1994; DeTombe, 2003).


Prof. Dr. Dorien J. DeTombe
Founder and Chair International - , Euro - , West-Euro- & Dutch Operational Research Research Group Methodology of Societal Complexity
Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China
Chair International Research Society on Methodology of Societal Complexity
多莉恩·德通教授 华人民共和国四川省成都市 一环南路一段24 四川大学
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EuropeTel: +31 20 6927526