The six +1 steps of the COMPRAM methodology


Prof. Dr. Dorien J. DeTombe
Founder and Chair International - , Euro - , West-Euro- & Dutch Operational Research Research Group Methodology of Societal Complexity
Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China
Chair International Research Society on Methodology of Societal Complexity
多莉恩·德通教授 华人民共和国四川省成都市 一环南路一段24 四川大学
Amsterdam, The Netherlands, EuropeTel: +31 20 6927526




 The methodology Compram prescribes in a framework model of six steps how to handle these kinds of problems. This is the Basic Approach of the methodology Compram (see for a more detailed description of the Compram approach DeTombe, 1994; DeTombe, 2003).


step  0    quick start workshop to handle life threatening situations

step 1   analysis and description of the problem by a team of neutral content experts

step 2   analysis and description of the problem by different teams of actors

step 3   identification of interventions by experts and actors

step 4   anticipation of the societal reactions

step 5   implementation of the interventions

step 6   evaluation of the changes



1 The methodology starts by making an integrated simulation model of the problem by content experts which have knowledge of the different aspects of the problem. This is the knowledge step. Questions that should be answered are: What do we know? What do we not know? What are the elements and how are they related? The experts make a simulation model of the elements of the problem supported by a seven-layer model of DeTombe This way they define the problem.

2 In step two of the Compram methodology a power analysis is made. The different power groups, the actors, discuss the problem in their own groups and give their perception of the problem, indicate what their desired goals are, on which points they want to cooperate and on which points not.

3 Then the actors and experts discuss some possibilities for changing. Based on the scenarios mutual accepted interventions are discussed. This is step three of the Compram methodology.

4 The selected interventions are discussed with the public before implementation in step four of the Compram methodology.

5 After that interventions are performed in step five.

6 In step six the results and  process  of the handling process are evaluated.


Analyzing and guiding a problem this way takes much time and energy. Sometimes direct handling is necessary. This can be done in the Quick Start Workshop where the problem owner, the main actors and the main content experts, guided by a facilitator, discuss the problem in a face to face meeting in an electronic meeting room (GDSS). This is step zero of the Compram methodology.  Here a quick and shallow inventory of the problem is made on urgent issues. The five most urgent issues are selected and a start can be made for direct interventions. A municipality can start working right away on these five selected issues. The Quick Start Workshop is followed by the Basic Approach of the Compram methodology.




©Dorien J. DeTombe, All rights reserved, first created 2004, update January 2017